Environmental economics

Question 2
I do agree with the statement that humans are destined to destroy themselves through polluting the earth and depleting the resources. Humans have been draining the earth resources and depleting the natural resources. Most of the environmental damage that happens in the world does not start with the large companies but through the cumulative actions of people. Some of the activities we engage in, tend to have a significant impact on the environment, and they ultimately harm our well-being. The main problem is with regards to energy use, and as a result, it is necessary to establish policies that will completely curb the use of fossil fuel energy sources such as oil. The burning of the fossil fuel does produce the greenhouse gasses, which lead to global warming. Therefore, so as to save the environment, it is important that such a policy be implemented.

Question 4
Natural capital is considered as the earth natural resources and also the ecological systems that offer vital life support services to societies and the living things. These services are of significant economic value, and some tend to be priceless as they do not have substitutes. The natural capitalism is considered as a new model of business, which enables the firms to realize their opportunities fully. According to Paul Hawken, natural capitalism does recognize critical interdependence between production and the use of human-made capital and maintenance and supply of the natural capital. By recognizing the relationship with the valuable resources on earth, it is only then that business and people will continue to exist. From the definition of the term natural capitalism, it is clear that it does extend the recognition of the human capital and natural capital.

Question 5
The 11th Hour film is an excellent illustration of what we need to do as humankind. From watching the film, I learned that we need to treat the earth the same way that we treat ourselves and our homes by starting cleaning it up. It is clear that our behaviors both collectively and individually are contributing to the damage caused in the environment. By watching the film, I realized that as human beings, we do not have all the time in the world, but the earth does have this time. Therefore, so as to help ourselves and keep the earth clean, we should start the process of cleaning up the environment. We all play a significant role in keeping the Earth safe for all of us so that we can protect ourselves. From the film, some of the ways that we can save the environment are through sustainable homes, conscious consumer choices, diversified transportation, alternate energy sources, and enlightened government agendas.

Question 1
The Limit’s to Growth study is considered as flawed. The predictions in the study have failed to take place because the study did not generate a robust current of the academic resource. From the study, none of the numbers used in the study was a prediction of what would happen. The information that was used to predict the future was only based on what was happening in the previous years. However, the study did not consider certain issues such as technological advances that would work to help improve the processes. The lack of this consideration and the innovative changes greatly contributed to the study being flawed and the predictions not coming true.

Environmental pressures

Introduction
According to Sorensen (2002), he describes the organization environment as the regulative, normative, and cognitive structures and activities that provide the firm’s activities with stability and meaning. In this structures, the firm tend to face many pressures from within itself and from outside. The organization pressures normally produce the net effect of more homogeny in the organization’s structures. In this report, I will present a table of three organizational and three environmental pressures in the organization and rank the pressures according to their influence. The report will also explain how the environmental and organizational pressures impact the financial perspective of the company. Finally, the paper will explain how the organization reacted to the pressures and at least propose strategies to reduce the identified environmental and organizational pressures.

Organizational and environmental pressures
The environmental and organizational pressures are usually the reason organizations change. The environmental pressures arise from the external sources while organizational pressures arise from sources within the organization and deal with integration, collaboration, growth, leadership moves, and identity (Sorensen, 2002).

Organizational pressures
Environmental pressures
Identity pressure
Fashion pressure
“New broom” pressure

Reputation and credibility
Growth pressure
hyper competition pressure

Environmental and organizations pressures in the organization
The environmental pressure normally occurs when the organization’s resource base decreases because of reduced demand for sales and products, bad investment decisions and a decrease in the market. Organizational and environmental pressure are essential when going through change and being able to manage the pressures help in preserving the identity of the organization in the marketplace and also determining failure and success factors.

The environmental pressures are essential to an organization. The reputation and credibility usually depend on how the organization reacts to the environmental pressures (Akin et al. 2009). An organization will face a crisis that present opportunities to boost or even destroy their reputation. However, the way the organization responds and actions it takes to address the crisis will determine the impact of its reputation. When working at Toyota, the company faced a recall crisis. The investigators in the case exposed the major flaws in the organizational culture and, as a result, the confidence of consumer’s dropped. As a result, the company decided to provide its past customers who bought a new car up to one and a half years of maintenances as a thank you for sticking with the company. The company made some changes; however, it did its best to protect its reputation and credibility.

Hyper-competition pressure normally affects how the firm responds to their consumers and competitors to cater for the increasingly rapid pace of the business. In Toyota, the Toyota Racing Development tends to differentiate itself with the hypercompetitive racing business in technology innovation (Stockstrom et al. 2006). So as to always be ahead of competitors, the Toyota Racing development usually evolves its racing software and to lead, the company must always be the first to adopt new technology. The company considers working with Microsoft that helps it to be at the forefront of the racing technology. The fashion pressure includes the organization cogently trying to keep up with trends from other industrial and organizational practices (Akin et al. 2009). About the fashion pressure, Toyota opened a bank that benchmarks the General Motors Acceptance Corp. The establishment of Toyota Financial Savings Bank aimed at emulating the success of GMAC in providing home mortgages and also vehicle financing for dealers and consumers.

The organizational pressure includes identity, growth, and new broom pressure. Growth is very important to organizations and failure to recognize growth can result in the organization being left behind. The phenomenon of the company is to continue improving and with this philosophy, the company has been improving every single day and also embracing change at every opportunity. The managers are usually responsible for writing annual growth plans and submitting them to their supervisors. The managers will decide on what he needs to grow and every quarter they sit and review the growth plans with the bosses.

The new broom pressure considers a change at the senior management level as being a catalyst for significant change in the organization (Akin et al. 2009). In March, Toyota did announce its biggest management overhaul since Akio Toyoda took over in 2009 (Stockstrom et al. 2006). The reorganizations occurred so as to enable the company to handle growth. The change happened as a way of rebuilding the organization where people would be able to take ownership of their work when entering the new phase of the sale of vehicles. With the new idea, the company appointed Takeshi Uchiyamada as the chairman and he has been the driving force behind the Prius, hybrid car.

The identity pressure is normally important in an organization and mostly to the minds of employees, investors, and customers (Akin et al. 2009). When a company has a powerful identity, it tends to increase the value of the company and also provides the motivation and direction for employees. The organization’s identity also enables clients to select the company for a business relationship easily. In May 2006, Toyota launched a rebranding campaign that was a technique to change its image (Stockstrom et al. 2006).

Impact from financial perspective

Every organization should work within a framework of particular environmental forces, and there is a continuous interaction between the environment and the organization. Organizations are usually not the same, and they tend to respond to a change in a different way (Sorensen, 2002). The changes have had a positive impact on the company’s financials. When Toyota created the hybrid vehicles, the public loved them, and the global sales of the gasoline-electric cars surpassed five million in an area where the innovation experienced great skepticism. Both organizational and environmental forces drove the company’s decision to make the hybrid car. Toyota saw an opportunity and decided to make a change in responding to the environmental changes.

Impact of the environmental and organizational pressures personally

The organization usually operates in an environment that presents threats and opportunities to it. Hence, the way the organization will take the best use of the opportunities and threats imposed is a matter of major concern. The organizational and environmental pressure has had a great impact on me and mostly with concerns about the change in managers. As Toyota has been experiencing a change in the past year, it also considered making some changes in its management. With some of the changes, the company considered appointing a new manager who would oversee the change process that resulted in the success of the change. Toyota made some changes in the attendance policy. The management considered making the change and amending the policy that has had a great impact on all employees as it provide a more work-life balance to staff.

Organization reaction to the changes
Based on the identified pressures in question one, the company did react to the changes in a proactive way that helped in securing its place as one of the top three car manufacturers. The company did publicize its strategic commitment towards the organizational change that integrated the environmental goals into its business processes. While considering the different changes that it has been making, Toyota enhances its existing capabilities in maintaining a sustainable competitiveness. When reacting to the pressures, the company continues to search for new development capabilities before its capabilities can become totally obsolete in the competitive market. The way the company reacts to the pressure enable Toyota to be more successful than most automobile firms.

Strategies to reduce environmentally and organizational pressure
A strategy that the organization can use in reducing the organizational pressure of fashion pressure has a strategic vision. Having a vision is very important because, with a clear vision, it will be able to attract the right strategy (Sorensen, 2002). In the case of the fashion pressure changes, if the organization has a vision of where it wants to be, the pressure of imitating the strategies of other organizations will reduce. A strategy for the growth pressure is for the organization management to create a culture of growth. The research and development team should have the necessary resources so that they can be able to come up with new ideas that may be helpful in the growth of the company.

Conclusion
Change tends to be a risky activity and most organizational changes fail. The pressure to changing usually comes from the internal, organizational pressure and external, environmental pressure. In this report, I discussed three environmental and organizational changes about the organization I worked for.

Dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) combines behavior and cognitive therapies with the goal of providing patients with the healthy and positive mechanism of going through a painful experience or emotions. The therapy was by Marsha Linehan, Ph.D. during the 1970s (Linehan, 1993). DBT was intended to treat patients with borderline personality disorders. The therapy aims to enable patients control their self-defeating thoughts, increase self-awareness, handle conflict and stress and modify thinking through the DBT processes. The main core principles under this therapeutic approach include dialectical thinking, differentiating between ineffective and effective behaviors, none -judgmental approach m and the therapeutic relationship primacy. Additionally, there are four main treatment models for DBT, which are distress tolerance, mindfulness, emotional regulation and interpersonal effectiveness. The therapy categories treatment into targets and strategies that with some few exceptions, strictly adhering to them when addressing the problem.

Benefit to society
The DBT is of benefit to the society through a wide range of ways. First the approach is vital in decreasing high-risk self-harming and suicidal behavior among people. The therapy also decreases interfering behaviors and behaviors that interfere with a person’s quality of life such as drug abuse, eating problems and unstable relationships. The approach is also helpful in assisting people master and learns behaviors for mood-independent life choices. The approach further helps to decrease symptoms of depressions, anxiety, stress and trauma. It helps individuals set goals so as to improve their worth of living and to enhance and sustain their self-respect (Linehan, 1993).

Pros and Cons
The advantage of DBT includes its ability to retain clients. Studies on the effectiveness of DBT have demonstrated its ability to retain clients throughout the treatment process. It is despite the therapy being a relatively long form of treatment lasting for 12 months. The therapy also has a high rate of client satisfaction DBT goal is, therefore, effective in meeting its goal of building a life worth living to patients. The therapy does not just aim at relieving symptoms but also decreasing the high cost of psychiatric services. DBT defines a life worth living as that in which a person attains ordinary happiness and happiness. DBT is a principle based and flexible treatment for all forms of multi-diagnostic patients. The treatment is flexible in addressing the specific needs of patients within a structured and standard framework. The DBT structure enables treatment of individuals suffering from substance use disorders and comorbid Axis I disorders. DBT aims to ensure the improvement of life.

The therapy as has clearly defined goals that define behavioral targets. It clearly specifies the functions for every treatment model. The therapy shows other forms of treatment provide no DBT and DBT interact with each other. It specifies the criteria that for determining the start of a formal exposures and guards against iatrogenic effects. DBT is a therapy driven on principle in a flexible manner in which the specific needs of a patient are within a structured and standard framework. DBT promotes the weekly monitoring of outcomes in a diary card. It helps to track the clinical progress by monitoring behavior.

The dialectical behavior therapy has the limitation of the presence of disjunction. It is because of the incompatible conceptual horizons in understanding. The approach also has a major inadequacy when examined from an existential-phenomenological perspective, for it fails to provide on the meaning of suicide to its participants. It also does not offer explanations on how they experience suicide and how to understand the phenomena as part of the treatment process. According to Linehan’s view patients with BPD, who end up committing suicide, are predisposed to do so because of genetic and biological factors in the first place and environmental factors that exacerbate the problem.

The people who can benefit from DBT are those who suffer from behavioral and emotional issues. It is also for people with disorders of eating disorders, depression disorders, chemical addiction/ dependent, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic disorder. It is because the DBT aims are helping people regulate their emotions and to find a much healthier mechanism for coping (Linehan, 1993). DBT has over the recent years being incorporated for treating people with eating disorders like binge eating, bulimia, compulsive eating, emotional eating, and anorexia. The accompanying of eating disorders is by deep impulsive behavior, negative emotions and patterns of relieving psychological and emotional pain. DBT according to eating disorder specialists is naturally the best approach for treating these kinds of life-threatening problems.

Motivation and Cognitive Control

Motivation normally directs as well as defines behavior of human means in a particular direction. The majority of the psychologists normally believe that the human beings are normally purposeful by nature. In this case, the position held is that people establish goals for themselves and consequently initiate the course of action that they believe are going to aid them in realizing the set goals. The behaviors that are goal directed are normally evident in as an early as when a child is two months old. For instance in the school going children as well as adolescents some of their goals as the desire to finish reading the dinosaur book are normally short term as well as transitory (Aarts, van Holstein, & Cools, 2011). On the other occasions, others may desire to be paleontologists that apt to be long term as well as considerably enduring. Motivation has the tendency of determining the exact goals in the direction to which the learners strive. In this context, it I normally impact the choices that the learners are going to make, for example whether they want to enroll in a studio or physics art. Additionally they could be faced with the dilemmas of either spending the evening playing video games with friends rather than completing a challenging assignment (Dweck, 2012).

Additionally motivation has the role of increasing the persistence as well as efforts that the human being normally dedicates to a task. Motivation has always been known to increase the amount of energy as well as effort that learners commit to their activities directly related to their goals as well as needs. It assists in the determination of whether they are pursuing a task enthusiastically as well as wholeheartedly on one occasion while they are lackadaisically and apathetically on another task (Murty, Labar, & Adcock, 2012). Additionally, learners who are motivated are in a better position to continue with a task till they are through even if they face interruptions occasionally or else frustrated in the course of their undertakings. Motivation plays the role of increasing an individual’s duration in a task, which is normally a vital attribute impacting their completion of the task as well as their achievement.

Motivation can affect the cognitive processes and in the case of students, it affects how they are going to be processing their information mentally. The attribute that support this assertion is that learners who are motivated are going to be able to be more attentive, which is a critical attribute in embedding information in our memories. Additionally, motivated learners are also going to make an attempt towards comprehending as well as elaborate on the material, being able to learn it meaningfully. It will be a contrast to them just going through the learning motions in a superficial as well as rote manner. In most cases, motivation assists in the establishment of the outcomes that are reinforcing as well as punishing (Aarts, Custers, & Veltkamp, 2008). The more the students motivated for the attainment of academic success, the prouder they are going to be relating to A and consequently more upset relating to element B and even C. The more the students crave for acceptance as well as respect from their peers, the more meaningful they will consider the approval of the in-group and the consequent perception of pain due to ridicule by the classmates. In the example of a teenage boy having no interest in athletics, failing to make the school football team is not a big issue to him. On the other hand, to a teenage boy whose life is all about football, making or else failing to make the school’s football team could be an outcome of monumental significance (Murty, Labar, & Adcock, 2012).

Cognition and motivation are the most common models of distinct processes with motivation being some form of direct and initiating as well as a pushing and pulling mechanism behavior. Cognition, on the other hand, is the manipulation of the memory representations normally coded. Motivation, as well as cognition, has managed to evolve and develop together making them become more strongly integrated for the coordination of their co-evolution and co-development (Aarts, van Holstein, & Cools, 2011). Lives that are well loved require an efficient balance between the short term as well as the long-term benefits between a convenience choice and an expenditure of effort. Additionally the balance should be set between taking control as well as letting go. On the occasion individuals retain high objective in their minds, they can desist from leisure excesses favoring the personal development. In this, it is evident that people should be flexible in terms of adapting their control.

The principal issues that cognitive psychologists have for a long time been studying related the ability of the humans to focusing on the relevant information and ignoring the distraction from the irrelevant information. The process has thus led to the development of the cognitive control function from which a mechanism of dedicated cognition established for the orchestration of the goal-oriented behavior. One of the most relevant issues in cognitive control is the ability to adapt the cognitive system to the demands of the situation. Applying the motivation difficulty law, people in almost all occasions try harder the moment the demand for the task demand for the hard work (Berridge, 2012). The position has thus motivated studies in support of the claim indicating the fact that the demands of a task normally lead to mobilization of efforts to undertake the task. Additionally, the argument follows those aversive situations irrespective of their motivating element that triggers them aid in the motivation to engage in cognitive efforts. In this case, the negative motivations could directly improve the intentional focus, making the better development of the cognitive processes. Additionally the direct motivations also modulate the emotions triggered by the demand as a result indirectly regulating the cognitive processes (Berridge, 2012).

In the context of motivation leading to the improvement in performance, motivation plays a major factor regarding the improvement of the performance of the domain in question. The elements of energy and persistence, behavior that is goal-directed, persistence, the impact of consequences and cognitive processing, motivation leads to their improvement. In this case, the students who on most occasions are motivated to learn as well as excel in their classroom activities, they normally tend to be best achievers in the same context. On the other hand, the learners who are normally least motivated to memorize the academic subject matter have a high risk in terms of dropping out of school before they can graduate (Dweck, 2012).

In terms of the cognitive processes, it is clear that the intrinsic motivations are normally more significant than the extrinsic motivations. It follows that not all the motivations normally produce identical outcomes about the human cognitive processes as well as performance. For instance in the case of two students whereby James does not like writing but is taking the class to be able to earn A grade is going to help him get a scholarship to the state university. In this case, she is in desperate need to go to the state university. In the second case, Evelyn has likes writing for as long as she can remember (Singh, Barto, & Sorg, 2010). The class is going to help her attain the scholarship to the state university and additionally she is going to become a better writer. According to her the class is significant in terms of her future aspiration of becoming a journalist.

James exhibits extrinsic motivation in those external factors that are not related the tasks he is undertaking are motivating him. Students who possess extrinsic motivation could desire money, good grades as well as recognition that will be possible to achieve by undertaking the particular activities. In this case, their motivation regarding the performance of the task is just as a means to an end and not as being an end themselves. On the other hand, Evelyn is motivated intrinsically as the motivating factors are within herself as well as inherent in the tasks she is undertaking. The intrinsic motivations are normally significant in the development of the cognitive processes when people engage in those tasks enabling them attain one or more psychological needs (Berridge, 2012).

People are most probably going to indicate beneficial motivation outcomes in terms if the energy, effort and persistence on the occasion they are intrinsically motivated to undertake the activities. Individuals who intrinsically motivated resolve the tasks they have been assigned willingly and in the case of students, eager to learn classroom materials. The resultant effect is that they will be able to process the information in an effective manner since their desire motivates their cognitive processes. The students will additionally be motivated to utilize their cognitive processes as they are willing to engage in the meaningful learning, thus their greater possibility of them achieving better outcomes at high levels (Aarts, van Holstein, & Cools, 2011). On the other occasion, some students possessing high intrinsic motivation levels are very focused in an activity with their interest making them lose track of time, ignoring the other tasks. The students who are extrinsically motivated, on the other hand, could be prodded, processing information only superficially and on most occasions have their interest in the undertaking of just the easy tasks. Additionally they only have the desire to satisfy the minimum class requirements, thus only developing their cognitive abilities partially (Singh, Barto, & Sorg, 2010).

The other demerit of the intrinsic motivation in terms of developing the cognitive processes is the fact that it normally declines with time and in the case of students as they progress with their school years. With the good grade, the students are going to receive promotions, graduate, as well as receiving college admissions, with the additional realization that they are not the best when compared to their peers. Additionally they begin imagining of how they will increase their cognitive abilities thinking of how they will strive for the long term goals (Dweck, 2012). The resultant outcome is that they begin to assess their school subjects in the context of their significance in the attainment of the objectives instead of the intrinsic appeals. The overall outcome is that they are going to get bored and impatient in time with the extremely structured, repetitive as well as boring situations they are in contact with at the schools.

On the other occasion, people are normally motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes simultaneously in their development of the cognitive processes. For instance, a student could realize that even though he enjoys his writing, he is aware of the fact that a good grade is going to guarantee a state scholarship. Additionally the good grade coupled with other external benefits for the high achievement could confirm that the student is improving in his cognitive processes. Thus, in this case, the intrinsic, as well as extrinsic motivations in the development of cognitive processes, do not act in opposition but as complementing each other (Aarts, van Holstein, & Cools, 2011). One some occasions the extrinsic motivations as a mode of reinforcement in the development of the cognitive process abilities could be the only attribute getting the individuals to succeed in the achievement. On the other hand, it is the intrinsic motivations that in the end sustain the individuals in the long run. They are going to ensure the individuals make sense and apply the content they are studying. As a result, they are going to increase the odds that they are going to continue reading and learning about learning.

Pros

On the occasions that the individuals’ behaviors are self-determined they are psychologically healthier along with tending to be intrinsically motivated. Conversely, they create a specific link between intrinsic motivation as well as self-determination, saying that intrinsic motivation is possible when people freely choose their actions; that is, they are self-determined. The schools could apply the tenets emphasized under the premises of cognitive behavior via ensuring that their students are aware of the benefit that will come if they work hard. Additionally education institutions could rely their knowledge of the various motivating issues to ensure that they modify the student’s behavior to the acceptable systems (Murty, Labar, & Adcock, 2012). Additionally with more individuals learning the matter of self-regulation about their cognitive abilities, the law enforcement agencies will have less work chasing individuals to make them conform. The society, in general, will be a productive place due to the self-regulation thus people have more time to undertake development guided agendas.

Cons

The position can criticize for emphasizing exceedingly on rational cognitive processes leading to motivation and behavior. Such criticisms are likely to be particularly regarding when these models considered from a developmental perspective. Conversely, the excellent body of research demonstrating the relations of expectancy along with values to varied kinds of performance as well as choice supports the progressive viability of the models. Children’s reaction to failure finds that some preschool children reacted negatively to failure (Singh, Barto, & Sorg, 2010). In the course of the preschool years, the children probably fail to have a clearly defined idea of what potential is. Thus, these earlier adverse reactions to failure could not imply that children doubt their potential, as their views of aptitude still are forming. The connection between the reactions and level of ability beliefs develop early in the school years. Consequently with the children reacting negatively to the failures early on could be more likely to be pessimistic about their abilities later.

Benefits
The individuals who can benefit from the idea of motivation and cognitive control are mainly the adolescents. The fact that they mainly associated with a heightened mortality rates as a result of their negative outcomes from risky behaviors makes them stand the best chance of benefiting from the intervention. Theories in the field of adolescent risk taking argue that the immature cognitive controls, as well as the raised reward reactivity, motivate their risk taking. The capability to manipulate behavior as well as generate goal oriented responses is normally visible in the early development stages whereby infants demonstrate occasions of inhibitory control (Aarts, van Holstein, & Cools, 2011). The ability to be able to exert cognitive control and in a consistent manner is very significant in adolescence. The adolescence is normally associated with normative increments in the sensation and novelty seeking. The tendencies are argued to possess adaptive benefits since they could motivate the youth to discover novel environments along with engaging in new social relationships.

These tendencies and relationships result in the acquisition of experiences as well as skills that prove critical in adulthood. Conversely, the drives could also result in some risky behaviors such as experimentation with drugs and unprotected sex leading to some aversive outcomes such as addictions and unwanted pregnancies. The increased mortality, as well as morbidity rates during the adolescence, is mainly due to the consequences of risks that could have avoided (Aarts, Custers, & Veltkamp, 2008). The rise in risk-taking is as a result of the decision-making mainly the choices made when the person is in a state of heightened emotions as well as the salient incentives. The decision-making on the other hand entails of the basic elements in which processing of incentives as well as the inhibitory controls is very significant.

Incarcerated delinquents are the other individuals who could benefit from the idea of motivation and cognitive control in terms of managing their delinquent acts and making them abide by the laws. Through the process of taking them though their deviant acts as showing them the harm they are suffering, they are going to be tempted to behave in an acceptable manner. The fact that most of the delinquent acts are as a result of peer influences makes it possible that by helping the delinquents rationalize their behavior they will abide by the law. Thus through the introduction of an effective reward benefits system, the deviant behavior of the youth can be modified through improvement in their cognitive control.

The knowledge of the issues could utilize in the counseling of individuals with conduct behavioral difficulties. With a trained counselor making sure that the individuals in question appraised the harm they are suffering due to their poor decision-making, as well as the benefits that they enjoy, would direct their conformity (Dweck, 2012). These individuals have the best chance of modifying their behaviors’ and attitudes if they are made aware of the danger they are creating as well as the benefits they could realize with the change in their behaviors.

Conclusion
Even though motivation studies have been an active focus within psychology for decades, there has evidently also been a recent innovation of interest. The renewal is due, to the mounting body of stimulating new findings happening across an assortment of areas. These include the dissociations between target directed against habitual motivational management, ego depletion, unconscious priming of goal pursuit. Additionally it includes interrelated influences on the commitment of cognitive effort, adolescent oversensitivity to enticement motivation and age-related positivity prejudice. Similarly, emerging insights into the systems of motivation have been provoked by novel evidence that motivation manipulates cognition in sections where it previously had been considered irrelevant, for instance, information from the long-term memory. As discussed above, furthermore as is detailed these findings are having a significant effect on and are being influenced by, present cognitive neuroscience research.